, lies within just 10 miles of the planet's surface, NASA Science Solar System Exploration - Earth. The mass of the air also keeps the Earth safe when rocks (meteorites) hit it from outer space. Earth is about 150,000,000 kilometres or 93,000,000 miles away from the Sun (this distance is called an "Astronomical Unit"). They are thicker where there is land, between 30 to 50 km or 19 to 31 mi thick. [4] To make up this extra bit of a day every year, an additional day is used every four years. [45][46][47] Similarly, the lowest point below sea level that we are conscious of is the Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean. Earth also turns around in space, so that different parts face the Sun at different times. This is where the word "month" came from, even though most months now have 30 or 31 days. Rain and storms are both in this level. 99.22% of rocks have oxygen in them. ", "The ab initio simulation of the Earth's core", "Chapter 8: Introduction to the Hydrosphere", "Fundamentals of physical geography - the greenhouse effect", "Earth – Speed through space – about 1 million miles an hour",, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. It is about 10,971 metres or 35,994 feet below sea level,[48] but, again, there are probably places at the bottom of the Arctic Ocean that are nearer to the center of the Earth. This can form islands (such as Japan), volcanoes, and high mountain ranges (such as the Andes and Himalayas). Due to this, the outermost layer is made of the lightest materials such as rocks and granites and the innermost layer consists of nickel and iron. About 90% of people live in the north half of the world, which has most of the land. Complex life on the surface of the land did not exist before the ozone layer. This axis of rotation is tilted 23.4 degrees away from the plane of Earth's orbit around the sun, giving us seasons. This is called a supercontinent. Burning these creates new carbon dioxide and can cause more warming. Even though air seems very light, the weight of all of the air above the outside of the Earth (air pressure) is important. It is, therefore, called a blue planet. There are three ways plates can come together. Morgan J.W. It takes about 27​1⁄3 days for the Moon to go all the way around Earth, but because Earth is moving around the Sun at the same time, it takes about 29​1⁄2 days for the Moon to go from dark to bright to dark again. [38] They were made of the leftover gas from the nebula that made the Sun. The earliest known supercontinent was called Vaalbara. The most common oxygen-having rocks are silica (made with silicon), alumina (made with aluminium), rust (made with iron), lime (made with calcium), magnesia (made with magnesium), potash (made with potassium), and sodium oxide, and there are others as well. As these plates collide, tear apart, or slide past each other, they give rise to our very active geology. The fresh water people can drink is mostly ice. All around the Earth is a large amount of air (the atmosphere). Forbes: How fast does the Earth move through the universe? Much later, there was a time (the Cryogenian) when Earth was almost entirely covered by thick ice sheets (glaciers). The Solar System is moving through the Orion Arm of the Milky Way galaxy now, and will be for about the next 10,000 years.[35][36]. Others, for example, Vatican City, are small. So far, this warming has been good for people: plants have grown better and the weather has been better than when it was colder before. But due to the field's structure, some particles get funneled to Earth's Poles and collide with our atmosphere, yielding aurorae, the natural fireworks show known by some as the northern lights.

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